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2017 Vol.60 No.6
Published: 10 December 2017
CONTENTS
Space physics·Atmospheric physics·Solid Earth
 
CONTENTS
0
CONTENTS
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 28 ) [HTML] [PDF 34KB] ( 53 )

Space physics·Atmospheric physics·Solid Earth
569 WANG Yan-Feng, SUN Xu-Guang, YANG Xiu-Qun
Role of Snow Depth in the Influence of El NiñO on Summer Climate Anomalies over East Asia
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 569-582 [Abstract] ( 39 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 18418KB] ( 71 )

With the datasets of Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) NOAH land surface model, GPCC monthly mean rainfall, and NCAR/NCEP global monthly mean reanalysis from 1948 to 2010, by using methods of filtering, composite and linear regression and correlation, the characteristics of Eurasian snow depth anomalies in El Niño mature winter, its influences on soil moisture after snow melting, and finally on East Asian summer monsoon are investigated, and the main conclusions are as follows:In El Niño mature winter, snow depth in regions of the Iranian Plateau, the northeast of Lake Balkhash and the southern Tibetan Plateau increases remarkably, so are the related snow melting and soil moisture. The above-mentioned three regions are identified as the key regions for snow depth to store and extend the El Niño signals. In spring, the snow begins to melt, and the soil moisture increases correspondingly, thus the El Niño signals are transmitted from winter snow depth to soil moisture in spring. As a result, sensible heat flux decreases and latent heat flux increases, and the atmospheric circulations are greatly influenced. The anomalous soil moisture in the Iranian plateau is most important for the East Asian summer monsoon in El Niño decaying summer, since it has similar impact pattern on the anomalous summer precipitation as the El Niño composite. The spring and summer soil moisture in both the southern Tibetan plateau and the northeast of Lake Balkhash increase simultaneously, which significantly contribute to the increased precipitation in North China. Therefore, to investigate and predict the East Asian summer monsoon variability by using El Niño signal, the roles of snow depth in storing and modulating El Niño impacts in those key regions should be considered.

583 WAN Yong-Ge, WAN Yong-Kui, JIN Zhi-Tong, SHENG Shu-Zhong, LIU Zhao-Cai, YANG Fan, FENG Tian
Rupture Distribution of the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake Sequence Inverted from Geodetic Data
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 583-601 [Abstract] ( 42 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 32851KB] ( 61 )

The Tangshan 1976 M7.8 earthquake was followed by two large aftershocks (the Luanxian M7.1 earthquake and the Ninghe M6.9 earthquake). The earthquake sequence occurred in an area with good geodetic observation, and the horizontal and vertical co-seismic displacements were obtained by triangulation net and leveling net. In this study, by using raw leveling data (not the subsidence image processed from raw leveling data) and triangulation observation data, we obtain the rupture distribution of strike slip and dip slip component on seismogenic faults. The geometry and size of the seismic faults of the Luanxian and Ninghe earthquake are considered in our model construction. The result shows that the seismic fault of the Tangshan mainshock manifested right-lateral strike slip with a maximum value greater than 6 m in the southern segment. The strike slip component on the northern segment is much less than that of the southern segment. The total seismic moment of the Tangshan mainshock is 2.58×1020 N·m, which is consistent with that determined by seismic waves. The seismic fault of the Luanxian earthquake shows as a left-lateral normal fault with total moment of 4.95×1019 N·m. The seismic fault of the Ninghe earthquake shows as a left-lateral normal fault with total moment of 3.94×1019 N·m, which is an order of magnitude greater than the moment determined by seismic waveform. It is so inferred that the aseismic slip of the Tangshan earthquake occurred on the western part of the Ninghe earthquake fault, demonstrated nearly normal fault property, which is of great significances for geodynamic process and mechanism of aftershock occurrence after the Tangshan earthquake.

602 SONG Chuang, XU Cai-Jun, WEN Yang-Mao, YI Lei, XU Wen
Surface Deformation and Early Warning Magnitude of 2016 Kaikoura (New Zealand) Earthquake from High-Rate GPS Observations
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 602-612 [Abstract] ( 30 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 25855KB] ( 66 )

On 13th November 2016, the Kaikoura region of New Zealand was struck by a major Mw7.8 earthquake. In this study, coseismic deformation field is derived from 1 Hz high-rate GPS observations based on the GAMIT track solution module, combining with PCA spatial filtering method firstly. Then the 5 s peak displacement of P-wave (Pd) and the peak ground displacement (PGD) are extracted from the real-time simulated kinematic displacements of the trackRTr module. Finally, the warning magnitude is calculated from the statistical regression model. Our results indicate that the duration time of the kinematic deformation is up to 2 min. The KAIK and HANM stations, which are closest to the epicenter, have secondary severe deformation. And the deformation amplitude of the north stations of the epicenter is larger than that of the south. The static coseismic deformation field from high-rate GPS observations shows the characteristics of the focal mechanism of strike-slip after thrust. In addition, the Pd warning magnitudes from different stations have a significant difference, with the maximum magnitude difference of Mw2.5. Considering the timeliness and reliability of the warning magnitude jointly, the warning magnitude from the four-station PGD joint warning method of reasonable spatial distribution can reach its initial stability (Mw7.56) at 23 s after the event, while final stability (Mw7.78) at 110 s, which is consistent with the USGS moment tensor magnitude (Mw7.8).

613 WEN Li-Min, KANG Guo-Fa, BAI Chun-Hua, GAO Guo-Ming, ZHENG An-Ran, AN Bai-Lin
Crustal Magnetic Anomalies and Geological Structure in the Yunnan Region
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 613-626 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 20467KB] ( 58 )

Based on the geomagnetic field model (NGDC-720) established by the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, the spatial variations of crustal magnetic anomalies in the Yunnan region were studied, including the distribution of magnetic anomalies and their gradients, attenuation of magnetic anomalies with altitude, and the contributions of components with different wavelengths to overall magnetic anomalies. The magnetic anomalies were compared with other geophysical data such as gravity anomalies, terrestrial heat flow, and seismic activities to reveal similarities and differences, and the relationship between crustal magnetic anomalies and geological structure was studied. The research results show that the magnetic anomalies are relatively weak in the Sanjiang (Three Rivers) and western Yunnan orogenic belts to the west of the Lijiang-Xiaojinhe and Red River fault zones, and relatively strong in the rhombic block. The crustal magnetic anomalies in the study region were mainly generated by the shallow magnetic bodies superposed on the background of weak magnetism basement. The satellite magnetic anomalies show that the middle Yunnan depression area has clear dipole field characteristics. The positive and negative magnetic anomaly zones distributed along the Red River fault zone have consistent strikes with that of the faults. The Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, the Red River fault, the Kangding-Yiliang-Shuicheng fault and the Mile-Shizong-Shuicheng fault zones surrounding the rhombic block are transition belts between strong and weak magnetic anomalies. The places with active seismicity and the areas with high terrestrial heat flow values have negative or relatively weak crustal magnetic anomalies.

627 HUANG Zhong-Lai, ZHANG Jian-Zhong, ZOU Zhi-Hui
A Second-Order Synchrosqueezing S-Transform and Its Application in Seismic Spectral Decomposition
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 627-639 [Abstract] ( 33 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 5959KB] ( 68 )

The Synchrosqueezing S-transform (SSST) is a novel approach for time-frequency (T-F) representation of non-stationary signals. By "squeezing" T-F spectrum of the S-transform (ST) of a signal, the SSST can obtain a high-resolution T-F spectrum. However, when the phase of a signal varies non-linearly with time, the instantaneous frequency (IF) of the signal calculated by the SSST would be inaccurate, causing reduction of the resolution of the T-F spectrum. In order to improve its performance in imaging such signals, we modify the formula of IF with the help of the second-order partial derivatives of time and frequency, and propose a second-order Synchrosqueezing S-transform (SSST2nd). Synthetic examples show that the SSST2nd not only has obviously higher resolution than commonly used T-F transforms, but also images the signals of which the IFs vary quadratically or sinusoidally with time better than the SSST. We apply the SSST2nd to perform spectral decomposition of seismic data for natural gas exploration. The results illustrate that the SSST2nd can be used to well detect frequency spectral anomalies correlated with natural gas accumulations. Therefore, it can be concluded that the SSST2nd is a good potential technique for seismic interpretation.

640 XU Wen-Jun, YIN Jun-Feng, WANG Hua-Zhong, FENG Bo
Automatic Estimation of Stacking Velocity Based on Sparse Inversion
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 640-650 [Abstract] ( 32 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 11158KB] ( 92 )

Stacking velocity analysis is a routine procedure in seismic data processing, and is also a classical method for initial velocity model building. Usually, stacking velocity analysis is divided into two steps:calculating stacking velocity spectra and picking spectra maximums. Until now, many researchers are trying to improve the stacking velocity spectra by computing a better semblance, considering the AVO effect or improving the anti-noise ability of algorithm. However, it is seldom discussed on how to calculate the stacking velocity automatically. In this paper, we try to solve this problem by combining the velocity spectra calculation and picking procedure into a model parameter estimation under the framework of sparse inversion. Therefore, it is possible to invert the stacking velocity automatically and shorten the turn-around time of initial velocity model building and reduce human costs considerably. To solve this problem, first we give the definition of forward problem, which is the prediction model for CMP gather using stacking velocity and t0 time as model parameters. Then, the inverse problem is defined as finding the sparse model parameters with the given CMP gather. Using the sparsity of model parameters as model constraint, we reformulate the conventional stacking velocity analysis problem as a new sparse inverse problem, and present an adaptive matching pursuit (MP) algorithm to solve it. The proposed method is quite promising for automatic initial model building, and can provide a good initial model for subsequent high-resolution velocity inversion methods. Numerical and field data tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

651 ZHENG Zi-Han, CAO Yun-Cheng, CHEN Duo-Fu
Prediction of the Methane Supply and Formation Process of Gas Hydrate Reservoir at ODP1247, Hydrate Ridge, Offshore Oregon
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 651-660 [Abstract] ( 26 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 4256KB] ( 66 )

The formation of gas hydrate reservoir in marine sediments is mainly controlled by methane supply and sedimentary burial. Based on the mass conservation of methane in gas hydrate system, a numerical model of gas hydrate formation was established considering the methane supplied by dissolved methane diffusion, pore water advection, and in situ methanogenesis. A case study of ODP site 1247 at the Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon shows that dissolved methane transported by molecular diffusion and pore water advection is the major supply of methane for gas hydrate formation, while in situ methanogenesis contributes little to the gas hydrate reservoir. The gas hydrate reservoir was also evaluated considering the changes of sedimentation rate since 1.67 Ma. Our model results show that the variations of sedimentation rate lead to little change in the size of gas hydrate reservoir at ODP 1247. The calculated hydrate saturation amounts to ~0%~3%, which is consistent with the measured values using pressure coring.

661 LIU Dong-Jia
Decreasing Radius Iterative Method for Regional-Residual Separation of Potential Field Data
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 661-677 [Abstract] ( 28 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 29877KB] ( 61 )

A decreasing radius iterative method in spatial domain is presented for regional-residual separation of potential field data. A new eight-point circumference average formula is derived by arithmetical average of potential field values at eight points along the circumference of a circle of given radius, which can be seen as a filter for calculating regional anomaly from gravity or magnetic data. The transfer function of the filter has a main lobe and multiple side lobes. When the radius becomes large, the number of the side lobes increases, and the filter characteristics become bad. The product of the transfer functions for various values of the radius from large to small is constructed, which is defined as decreasing radius iterative transfer function herein, with the largest radius as its parameter. The decreasing radius iterative transfer function is similar to the low-pass filter, and the cut-off wave number is inversely proportional to the largest radius. Based on the decreasing radius iterative transfer function, the decreasing radius linear iterative method in spatial domain is presented for separating regional anomaly, and the residual anomaly is obtained by subtracting the regional anomaly from the gravity or magnetic data. Furthermore, by constructing the nonlinear correction coefficient, the linear iterative formula of the decreasing radius linear iterative method is transformed into the nonlinear iterative formula, and the decreasing radius nonlinear iterative method in spatial domain is proposed. The decreasing radius nonlinear iterative method is tested with synthetic data from model and a field data set from the Nihe iron deposit in Anhui Province. The results show that the proposed method effectively suppresses false anomaly and high frequency interference, reduces anomaly distortion, and separates regional anomaly and residual anomaly from the gravity and magnetic data.

678 CHEN Sheng-Chang, CHEN Guo-Xin
Time-Damping Full Waveform Inversion of Multi-Dominant-Frequency Wavefields
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 678-688 [Abstract] ( 28 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 4328KB] ( 55 )

The lack of low-frequency components and the subsurface strong variations of velocity can lead to severe cycle-skipping phenomenon, which is a big challenge to full waveform inversion of seismic data. Through the applications of the time-damping and the time integration for decreasing the dominant-frequency of seismic wavefield, a time-damping full waveform inversion of multi-dominant-frequency wavefields is proposed. This method can efficiently eliminate the cycle-skipping phenomenon. Velocity errors from shallow to deep can lead to misfits of travel-time and their accumulations. The accurate inversion of shallow velocity can efficiently reduce the misfits of travel-time and cycle-skipping phenomenon in the inversion of later waveform. Applying the timedamping approach to seismic data can obtain time-damped data. The inversion of these time-damped data with different damping values can produce the results from shallow to deep depth. The cycle-skipping phenomenon is weak for the wavefields with lower dominant-frequency compared to higher dominant-frequency wavefields. The time integration of different orders of the seismic wavefield can produce wavefields with different dominant frequencies. The inversion results of low dominant-frequency wavefields are used as the starting models for the full waveform inversion of high dominant-frequency wavefields. Numerical tests using synthetic data lacking lowfrequency components below 4Hz of the 2D salt-dome model have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the proposed method. The final results show that the time-damping full waveform inversion of multi-dominantfrequency wavefields has proper flexibility for seismic data lacking low-frequency components and in case of strong subsurface velocity variations.

689 CUI Yi-An, WEI Wen-Sheng, ZHU Xiao-Xiong, LIU Jian-Xin
Time-Lapse Inversion of Self-Potential Data Using Kalman Filter
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 689-697 [Abstract] ( 27 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 11875KB] ( 54 )

It is very common to use the self-potential methods in environmental and engineering applications, especially in some monitoring services. However, the monitored data of each time step are always inverted and interpreted independently. That means the valuable correlation information of time-lapse data is totally ignored. In order to take full advantage of the correlation information, a time-lapse inversion was proposed to promote the reliability of data interpretation. Based on the Darcy's law and Archie's formulas, a dynamic geoelectric model was built to simulate the transportation of contaminant plume in underground porous medium. Then this dynamic model can be used as a state model for the Kalman filtering. And the corresponding observation model can be obtained from conventional self-potential forward calculation. Thus, a Kalman filter recursion can be constructed by using the state model and observation model. During the recursion, the information of geoelectric model evolution and observed self-potential data are fused to achieve a time-lapse inversion of self-potential data. The time-lapse inversion algorithm was tested by both noise added synthetic self-potential data and laboratory observation data from self-potential monitoring over a sandbox. The numerical test shows the validity, robustness, and tolerance to noise of the time-lapse inversion. And the results of physical data test also demonstrate that the time-lapse inversion can invert real time-lapse self-potential data successfully and retrieve the dynamic geoelectric model exactly.

698 CHEN Han-Bo, LI Tong-Lin, XIONG Bin, CHEN Shuai, LIU Yong-Liang
Finite-Element Modeling of 3D Mcsem in Arbitrarily Anisotropic Medium Using Potentials on Unstructured Grids
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 698-709 [Abstract] ( 27 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 9712KB] ( 69 )

This paper presents a new algorithm for the three-dimensional marine controlled source electromagnetic method modeling in arbitrarily anisotropic medium based on unstructured grids and coulomb gauge. In order to avoid the effect of source singularity, we apply the secondary potential formulation for the quasi-static of Maxwell's equation. Next, solving the finite element equations with IDR(s) iterative algorithm method combined with the incomplete LU decomposition technology. Once the secondary vector and scalar potential is solved, we can use the moving least square method to calculate their spatial derivative and compute the secondary electric and magnetic field. In order to test the finite element method for numerical modeling of 3D controlled source electromagnetic data in an arbitrarily anisotropic conductive medium of this paper, we applied the developed algorithm to compute the typical CSEM response of two 3D models. The modeling results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective; the IDR(s) is competitive with or superior to ILU-QMR, ILU-BICGSTAB methods; the proposed algorithm is general and can be applied to EM modeling in borehole and environment geophysics in arbitrarily anisotropic medium.

710 LIU Zhi-Xin, XUE Guo-Qiang, ZHANG Lin-Bo
Comparison and Analysis of the Effective Observation Area of the Tensor CSAMT by Numerical Modeling
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 710-721 [Abstract] ( 29 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 10142KB] ( 74 )

According to the response formulas of the scalar CSAMT (controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric) method, its programs can be designed in several manners with different sources such as a vertical double dipole source and a three-dipole source of varied geometries. Through numerical simulation, this study obtains the value distributions of X- and Y-direction components of the resultant electromagnetic (EM) field, which permit to further analyze the effective observational area. The results show that the distribution of crosslike source exhibits scattered weak responses, representing a smaller effective observational zone. Meanwhile, its requirement to the terrain condition of the working site is very harsh, thus cannot work well in mountainous areas with high topographic relief. Based on the principle of the rotating three-dipole device, we propose a new device composed of multiple dipole sources for the CSAMT which can facilitate integrated measurement of tensors of the EM field. Compared with the cross-like source, this approach can realize measurement throughout the whole area without weak-value zones. Moreover, this new device is easy to deploy in various terrains. The results of this study provide a technical basis for further engineering production of tensor measurement.

722 YANG Jin-Xiu, WANG Hong-Liang, HE Wei-Wei, WANG Min, LU Shuang-Fang
Study on the Seismic Characteristics of the Gas Hydrate System in the Niger Delta
2017 Vol. 60 (6): 722-732 [Abstract] ( 31 ) [HTML]New ( ) [PDF 33829KB] ( 67 )

Gas hydrate system is generally indicated by seismic indicators like bottom simulating reflection (BSR) and underlying high amplitudes (often caused by free gas zones:FGZs), but not all BSRs and underlying high amplitudes are caused by hydrates or free gas. In this study, we choose apparent polarity attribute to help identify hydrate-related BSR and FGZs, both of which are characterized by negative apparent polarity and high amplitude. In the study area, the gas hydrate system is mainly distributed in areas with gravitational structures including growth faults and related rollover anticlines. Faults, chimneys, unconformity and permeable sandstone beds can act as fluid migration conduits, supplying gas to the shallower gas hydrate system. When gas hydrates dissociate or the FGZs are critically overpressured, these conduits can also play a role in gas recycling between the FGZs and hydrate-bearing strata with some of the free gas escaping to the seabed and even to the atmosphere. Generally, apparent polarity is an effective attribute to identify hydrate-related BSR and FGZs, and fluid migration pathways are of great importance for the formation of gas hydrate system in this study area.

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